What is the normal gravity field of the earth? What is the law of the normal gravity field changing with latitude and altitude?

2020-04-24
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①地球的正常重力场:假设地球是一个旋转椭球体(参考平面),表面光泽,内部密度是均匀的,或是呈同心层状分布,每层的密度是均匀的,并且椭球面的形状与大地水准面的偏差很小,此时地球所产生的重力场即正常重力场。

②正常重力值只与纬度有关,在赤道处最小,两极处最大,相差约50000g.u.;正常重力值随纬度变化的变化率,在纬度45°处最大,而在赤道处和两极处为零;正常重力值随高度增加而减小,其变化率为-3.086 g.u.。长期变化的主要特征是地磁要素的“向西漂移”,偶极子场和非偶极子场都有向西漂移,且具有全球性质。


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